2.7. Gravida = a pregnant woman

There is such a thing as being a little bit pregnant, presumably pregnant, or probably pregnant before one is positively pregnant. Cis men can have hysterical pregnancies (Couvade syndrome), while a positive pregnancy test could be the result of medications or a (non-pregnancy-related) medical condition.
Image source: Crash Course

Presumptive Signs of Pregnancy: "presumptuous" signs perceived by the woman may be caused by just about anything other than actual pregnancy.
1. Absence of menstruation: could be stress, very low or high body weight, excessive physical activity, just late, or menopause.
2. Nausea & vomiting: stress, food poisoning, overindulgence/ having too much fun (without occurence of conception).
3. Breast changes: PMS.
4. Fatigue: anemia, sleep deprivation, or does one need a reason to be tired? How about being a woman in the first place and having to worry about all of this, and everybody else, too?
5. Urinary frequency: possible UTI, or too much liquid, caffeine, alcohol or other diuretics.
6. Quickening (fetal movement?): possible indigestion/ gas.

Probable Signs of Pregnancy: objective signs of pregnancy (which still might be caused by something else) perceived by a healthcare provider.
1. Chadwick's sign: bluish-purple coloration Down There, 6-8 weeks.
2. Goodell's sign: softening Down There with increased discharge, 8 weeks.
3. Hegar's sign: softening of lower uterine segment, 6 weeks.
4. Uterine & abdominal growth.
5. Darkened skin on face, belly, and areolas/nipples.
6. Ballottement: fetus (presumably) rising and falling when cervix is tapped (by doctor's finger).
7. Positive pregnancy test: still not 100% positive.

Positive Signs of Pregnancy: sorry, or congratulations--you're definitely preggers.
1. Sonographic visualization with cardiac movement, 4-8 weeks.
2. Fetal heart sounds heard via Doppler, 10-12 weeks.
3. Observation & palpation of fetal movement by examiner, 20+ weeks.

For better or worse, denial--like pregnancy--doesn't last forever.

Source: Chapman & Durham's Maternal-Newborn Nursing, 2nd. ed.


  1. I haven't had any success catching my foetus' heartbeat with a Doppler at home. I know it might be too early but it's frustrating all the same.

    1. Dr's Dopplers are usually fancier than ones for home use, but soon enough it will be impossible to ignore all of baby's activities (kicking, bladder-bouncing, hiccupping... :)


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